Stand-up fighting (sometimes referred to simply as "stand-up") is hand-to-hand combat which takes place while the combatants are in a standing position. The term is commonly used in martial arts and combat sports to designate the set of techniques employed from a standing position, as opposed to techniques employed in ground fighting. Stand-up fighting that takes place while the combatants are grappling each other is referred to as clinch fighting, and has its separate article.
Techniques used in stand-up fighting include various strikes or blocking techniques, either with parts of the body, or with mêlée weapons. Essential aspects of stand-up fighting include striking combinations, with the aim of striking to incapacitate or injure the opponent. Martial arts and combat sports that emphasize stand-up fighting include Boxing, Escrima, Karate, Kendo, Kickboxing, Kung fu, fistfighting, Silat and Taekwondo, Muay Thai, Savate (even if the latter also has an important component of clinch work.
Stand-up fighting distances
Comfort zone: The comfort zone is a non-combat distance from which it is not possible to kick the opponent without closing the distance considerably. From this zone the combatant might carefully close in on the opponent to engage with strikes. The "Comfort Zone" is between your waist and the bottom of your neck.
Kicking distance: The kicking distance is the most distant unarmed fighting position in which consistent contact can be made with the opponent. The combatants can use far-reaching quick kicks to the legs, body or head of the opponent. Martial arts such as Taekwondo, emphasize the kicking distance in fighting.
Punching distance: The punching distance refers to the zone where punches can be thrown, and this is the distance from the furthest jab to the closest hook, as long as no grappling is taking place. In addition to punches, this distance often also allows for elbows and knees. Boxing is a combat sport which concerns itself with exclusively the punching distance. However many martial arts, particularly those which employ extreme close range fighting (for example Wing Chun and Southern Praying Mantis) train ranges within punch range, but do not necessarily employ clinching techniques. This collection of ranges is often called the in-fighting range.
Clinching zone: The clinching or trapping zone refers to the same distance as the punching distance, except that one or both combatants grapple, and at the same time prevent the other from moving into a more distant contact zone or into the comfort zone by using a clinch hold. This zone involves a multitude of both striking and grappling techniques, and is discussed on its own page Clinch fighting.
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